Do the Boomerang!

Nowadays, Instagram is treated as a standard for every photographer and even under casual users the app has established itself rather quickly. With our without specific filters, using Hashtags and Snapshots they users are trying constantly to entertain their audiences with unique photos.  At the same time the content producers are touting for their part of the daily growing user base . As a natural consequence of the success of the application, it went a step further and enables the user to record moving pictures.
GIFs, short for graphic interchange format are an ever present phenomena of the internet. Even Facebook admitted the success of this graphical format by enabling GIFs as a n alternative to the rather monotonous profile picture.

©Instagram
©Instagram

But what is Boomerang and which features made it so unique? Under the Slogan: “IT’S NOT A PHOTO, IT’S NOT A GIF, IT’S BOOMERANG”, Instagram released its new application which came more or less as a surprise to the loyal user base.

The app is rather easy to use: press the record button and the rest will be done automatically. Boomerang records a series of a total of 10 pictures and combines them to a video of around 1 second. This extremely short video can be watched forwards and backwards. In addition it is the app also provides the characteristics share option to make the video available for friends and relatives.

The program is comparable to the Live-Photo feature of the IPhone 6. However, Boomerang has no restrictions concerning smartphones and can be installed on almost any commonly used mobile device.
While using the application on a frequent basis it is advised to ensure enough memory space is available. Regardless of the purpose, each and every video will be stored on the actual device. Like its predecessor Instagram, Boomerang is available for free and photos can be made in horizontal and portrait format, using front or rear camera of your smartphone. As a side note, it is not required to be a registered Facebook or Instagram user to have access to this application.
If you already tried Boomerang, please feel free to share your best moments and experiences with us. We are looking forward to all of your creative and ambitious projects.
Your ScanCorner-Team.

Rare World War I posters to be sold in online auction

A collection of about 2,000 posters from the World War I era by US army officer Edward H. McCrahon, considered to be one of the world’s best collections will be sold during an online auction on June 30 and July 1.

About half of the posters are from the US, while others are in various languages from more than 15 countries including France, Italy, Germany, Canada, Cuba and China. All these art works expected to fetch between $200 to $5,000 are patriotic, with topics ranging from fundraising and food rationing to women’s war efforts, enlistment and animal aid.

The famous poster of a stern-looking, top-hatted Uncle Sam pointing a finger with the words “I want you for US army”, is one among them. J. M. Flagg’s 1917 poster, based on the original British Lord Kitchener poster of three years earlier, was used to recruit soldiers for both World War I and World War II. Flagg used a modified version of his own face for Uncle Sam, and veteran Walter Botts provided the pose.

Uncle Sam pointing a finger with the words "I want you for US army”
Uncle Sam pointing a finger with the words “I want you for US army”

The largest poster is a massive 9 x 14 ft. American work urging people to “Give or Perish,” that was made on behalf of the Armenian Relief Fund.

Largest poster 9-by-14 foot "Give or Perish"
Largest poster 9-by-14 foot “Give or Perish”

“It appears that from the very beginning it was always looked at as the most comprehensive assemblage of posters of many different nationalities pertaining to their involvement in World War I” said Arlan Ettinger, the president of Guernsey’s.

Edward H. McCrahon, who was born in Brooklyn, started the collection after he joined the French Army in 1917. He became enthralled with the colorful, graphic posters encouraging citizens to support the war and continued collecting after enlisting with the U.S. armed forces. When WWI ended Mr McCrahon devoted all of his time to enlarging the collection, and by the 1930s he began to exhibit it around the country.

“There are many posters in this collection that have never been seen before,” said Ettinger. “It really is a time capsule of a different era, when these things were very stirring, patriotic and treasured,” Ettinger added.

Digitisation blog: Scanning tips, DPI and Resolution

WHY SCAN?

Chances are you have a stack of photo albums, negatives and slides change color and fade with time due to collection of dust and exposure to light. Having your photos, negatives and slides digitised protects them from being lost or damaged and you can cherish the good old memories for lifetime. Scanning photos opens up so many doors to how you enjoy your memories with the easy to use digital Sharing options.

Photos and Slides Fade

Colour photos stored in ideal conditions will fade over time. The primary cause of fading is due to exposure to light. Another main cause is simply the way the photo was developed. The material used to create the photo has a limited lifespan and will start to fade.

Photos Change Color

The chemical reaction used to produce the old photos on the paper is not permanent and the photo starts to break down and lose its colour over time. The most common reaction is a yellow haze or a reddish haze that develops over the photo. The scanning process utilises software that attempts to correct this problem, thus bringing back the natural colour of the photo in digital form.

Photos and Slides Have Dust and Scratches

Slides are particularly easy to scratch and always have some amount of dust on them. By scanning, minor dust and scratches from the final image can be eliminated easily to obtain clearer image resulted due to digital ICE procedure.

Keep Your Photos and Slides Safe From Disaster

Unfortunately the precious photos and slides stored in boxes or albums are subjected  to possible fire, water or smoke damage, animals, pets, theft, or simply misplacing them. Scanning them to digital format allows you to have all your photos and slides on a DVD and having them on your computer.

For Gifting and Sharing and Sharing With Friends and Family

Once you get your photos and slides on a DVD, you can share them with family members.  You can also have the images on a USB which you can simply plug into your computer or HDTV, which will give access to the digital images. Social media websites such as Facebook, Twitter, Google+ are making it easier than ever to share your photos with friends and family. Scanning your photos and slides lets you share those precious memories easily and quickly. These digital files will also make great gifts which you can make use of to create photo books, calendars and similar wonderful gifts for a family member or friend.

CHOOSING SCANNER

The first thing to decide when beginning with scanning is what type of scanner you want. There are various kinds of scanners available. When choosing your scanner, there are two important features that you should look for:

Scanner Resolution

A better scanner resolution will mean a better quality scan of your photo which makes it really important. It’s best to look for a scanner that gives you a resolution of at least 3000 dpi.

Dynamic Range

A scanner’s Dynamic Range relates to how much detail the scanner can bring out in highlights and shadows. It’s measured on a scale of 0-4 and is usually called Dmax. Ideally, look for a scanner with at least a rating of 3.

SCANNING TIPS:

For the highest quality, set up your scanner in a dust-free environment. First, remove any dust or dirt from your photo prints with a microfiber cloth or alcohol-based cleaning wipe. It’s important that you thoroughly clean both the photos and scanner, as the scanner’s sensitive sensor will pick up even a speck of dust on the glass or on the photo.

Here are tips to how to clean the glass on your scanner safely and effectively:

Step 1: Unplug the power cord from the scanner.

Step 2: Using a soft, lint-free cloth, like a microfiber cloth, wipe off the dust from the scanner glass.

Step 3: If the glass has smudges or other contaminants, use a little bit of glass cleaner on a microfiber cloth and wipe the glass.

Step 4: Using a dry microfiber cloth, dry off any remaining moisture or residue.

Do not use any glass cleaners that contain the following cleaning agents:

Acetone, ammonia, benzene, carbon tetrachloride

The above chemicals can damage the scanner glass. Though some manufacturers suggest using isopropyl alcohol, it tends to leave streaks.

We also do not recommend using compressed air for dusting because the force of the air could end up blowing dust into the edges of the scanner and end up underneath the glass, which is a lot harder to clean.

Before you scan the photos, consider the way in which you’ll organise them – by date or by event? How will the files be named? Choose a system before you scan, and organise your printed photos, negatives and slides into stacks accordingly.

Here are some tips:

Scan multiple photos at once. On an average-sized scanner bed, you should be able to scan four 4×6 photos at once, and crop them later. Some scanners even come with software that does this automatically for you. Use this method to cut down scanning time.

Select a resolution of at least 300 dpi and up to 600 dpi for photos, if you plan to order enlargements.

Take advantage of editing options. Most scanning software will allow you to crop, adjust colour and brightness, remove scratches, dust and red-eye.

CHOOSING A RESOLUTION

For photo prints, 300 dpi is fine in general. To make sure you get all the details hidden in your prints, scan at 600 dpi. Scanning beyond 600 dpi will make the files bigger without giving you any additional image detail. Plus, higher the resolution, the more time it takes to scan each photo.

For slides and negatives, 2000 dpi will give you the equivalent of a 6-megapixel photo, which is good enough for most standard print sizes. If the scanner can go higher (such as 4000 dpi), take advantage of it to enable high-quality cropping.

RESOLUTION, DPI AND PPI

The resolution of a digital photo is its pixels, expressed as megapixels – the horizontal pixel dimensions multiplied by its vertical pixel dimensions.

DPI stands for Dots Per Pixel. It is a measure of the number of dots that can be placed within a 1 inch span line.

PPI stands for Pixels Per Inch. It is the digital photo’s pixels dimension divided into the size of the paper to be printed. PPI occurs only when it is printed.

WHICH FILE FORMAT?

JPEG(Joint Photographic Experts Group): Sometimes referred to as JPG. JPEG is the standard file format and compatible image format supported by almost all of today’s imaging software. Some image data is lost when the file is compressed. The amount of compression can be varied. More the compression, more data is discarded and smaller a file becomes. JPEG is great for creating smaller file sizes for uploading on the Internet, or for use with e-mail.

PROS:

  • Smaller File Size: JPEG uses lossy compresion to reduce file size making its use on the Internet or creating backup CDs hassle free.
  • Supported by most software and photo sharing websites.

CONS:

  • Lossy Compresion: Lossy means with data loss. JPEG compression does discard some image data based on the amount of compression used.
  • High Quality but not the absolute best.
  • Not a good choice for editing: JPEG files use lossy compression. If you plan to edit a photo and then re-save it, you will lose some quality. It loses quality, detail and information each time you edit and re-save it.

TIFF(Tagged Image File Format): TIFF (RAW) format is the standard for most commercial and professional printing needs. TIFF format means that no image data is lost after scanning. It is a great choice for archiving images where all details must be preserved and file size is not a consideration. TIFF files are very large in size compared to JPEGs because no compression is used.

PROS:

  • No Compression: TIFF files are not compressed files. This means 100% of the data captured during scanning is retained.
  • Absolute best quality.
  • Better choice if you plan to edit because TIFF files don’t use compression and quality is not lost each time the photo is edited.

CONS:

  • Large File Size: TIFF files are much larger than JPEGs making them harder to upload or email.
  • Not supported by most photo sharing websites but is supported by most software.

HOW BIG WILL MY FILES BE?

This depends on the format they are saved to. The charts below list file sizes you can expect from TIFF and JPEG files.

35 MM FILM SCANNING: PIXEL & FILE SIZE OF A STANDARD 35MM FRAME
Scan Resolution Pixel Dimensions Megapixels JPEG File Size TIFF File Size
2000 DPI 2700 x 1800 4.8 2.2 MB – 3.8 MB 14.2 MB
3000 DPI 4050 x 2700 10.9 4.3 MB – 7.1 MB 32.0 MB
4000 DPI 5400 x 3600 19.4 6.7 MB – 10.8 MB 56.9 MB
* Based on 24 bit scanning and JPEG quality of 10 using Adobe Photoshop. JPEG file sizes vary.
35 MM FILM SCANNING: PIXEL & FILE SIZE OF A STANDARD 35MM FRAME
Scan Resolution Pixel Dimensions Megapixels JPEG File Size TIFF File Size
2000 DPI 2700 x 1800 4.8 2.2 MB – 3.8 MB 14.2 MB
3000 DPI 4050 x 2700 10.9 4.3 MB – 7.1 MB 32.0 MB
4000 DPI 5400 x 3600 19.4 6.7 MB – 10.8 MB 56.9 MB
* Based on 24 bit scanning and JPEG quality of 10 using Adobe Photoshop. JPEG file sizes vary.
300 DPI PRINT SCANS:
Pixel Dimensions JPEG File Size TIFF File Size
3 X 5 900 x 1500 650 KB – 1 MB 3.9 MB
4 X 6 1200 x 1800 1.1 MB – 1.6 MB 6.3 MB
5 X 7 1500 x 2100 1.6 MB – 2.3 MB 9.2 MB
8 X 10 2400 x 3000 3.2 – 4.5 MB 21.2 MB
* Based on 24 bit scanning and JPEG quality of 10 using Adobe Photoshop. JPEG file sizes vary.
600 DPI PRINT SCANS:
Pixel Dimensions JPEG File Size TIFF File Size
3 X 5 1800 x 3000 2.4 MB – 3.5 MB 15.8 MB
4 X 6 2400 x 3600 3.6 MB – 5.2 MB 25.3 MB
5 X 7 3000 x 4200 4.8 MB – 6.9 MB 36.9 MB
8 X 10 4800 x 6000 9.1 MB – 14.3 MB 84.4 MB
* Based on 24 bit scanning and JPEG quality of 10 using Adobe Photoshop. JPEG file sizes vary.

Canon celebrates 80th anniversary of the Kwanon

Canon, one of the leaders in digital imaging solutions, announces its 80th anniversary of its first camera, the Kwanon.
In 1934 the company launched its first camera, the Kwanon , named after the Buddhist goddess of mercy. When selecting the name, the engineers relied on the benevolence of the deity hoping that it would help them pursue their dream of producing the best camera in the world. Additionally, the top of the camera featured an engraved symbol of the goddess Kwannon. At that time Canon did not have any facilities to produce it own lenses. So the one which is built in Kwanon , also bearing a Buddhist name, comes from today’s company Nikon.
1934kwanon
Two years later, after completion of the Kwanon and some further experiments including much trial and error, Canon launched the Hansa Canon, its first commercial 35mm focal-plane-shutter camera. The company’s history has been embarked as the leading camera manufacturer.
1959 Canon introduced its first single lens reflex camera (SLR), the Canon Flex, a tremendously famous camera. After this success the company continued to lead the industry with a range of popular camera models.

ScanCorner presents exclusive World Cup 2014 contest

Football fans all over the world are waiting for the launch of the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.  The biggest sporting event is going to start on June 12 with the match Brazil against Croatia. According to this special tournament ScanCorner proudly presents its exclusive World Cup competition.

Facebook fans of the page ScanCorner have the opportunity to predict the result of the upcoming England matches and have the chance to win a 25% discount if the guess the final score correctly. All of the participating individuals receive a 15% discount for all digitisation services.

If you want to join the contest, you should follow the following steps:

First visit Facebook site and like the page (https://www.facebook.com/scancorneruk?ref=hl)

2. Like or share the Facebook post

3. Predict the result and type it in the comment box

(Prediction must be typed before kick off and only one guest per person is allowed)

UK-IT

The competition begins on June 15 with the match England against Italy.

 

ScanCorner wishes the Three Lions and every participant of our competition good luck!!!

Learn the Basic Steps in Creating Beautiful Analog Photos

There have been two discussions regarding analog photography in this blog, namely: Analog Photography in Digital Times (http://www.scancorner.co.uk/blog/analog-photography-in-digital-times/ ) and Analog Photography Vs Digital Photography (http://www.scancorner.co.uk/blog/analog-photography-vs-digital-photography-a-comparison/ ).

Have you read the above mentioned articles? Did these discussions entice you to discover your skills in analog photography?

If you are interested in learning the art of analog photography, then this article is intended to teach you how to create beautiful analog pictures.

The Ten Basic Steps:

  1. Bring your camera everywhere you go.

Taking photos is not always planned. It happens at any moment that you find the need to capture a precious moment. You will never know when an important or breathtaking event happens before your eyes, so it is best to have your camera tucked with you always.

  1. Use your camera anytime of the day or night.

Every time of the day is special for you and your camera. Every moment is very monumental. Taking photos of your daily activities or experiences will help you live your life not only for the present but it will also enable you to conserve the present for your future.

  1. Accept that photography is a part of your life.

Once you embrace the art of photography, you will become accustomed to having your camera as a necessity of your life. You will find it impossible to get on with your daily living without your camera in tow.

  1. Try the shot from the hip.

Do not limit yourself with the usual photographic point of view, which is taking photos of your subject’s face. Try to make a difference by taking photos of the areas from the hip and below. This is a least ventured angle and you will surely be amazed with what the images that you will create.

  1. Approach your subject as close as possible.

An essential part of your photographic existence is to find out the bottom of things and to investigate the world from the inside. Before you take photos of your subject, try to get to know your subject up-close so you will be able to create images that are meaningful.

  1. Let your raw ideas flow.

Do not lose important moments just because you are still deciding whether that moment is worth taking pictures of or not. Photograph anything that catches your eyes or whatever that attracts, excites or astounds you. Just have fun while taking photos.

  1. Be swift.

Events happen before our eyes in a split second, thus if you want to capture that special moment, then you must be fast and attentive.

  1. Do not oblige yourself to know beforehand what you have captured on film.

Taking photos must be fun, you do it because the moment is so meaningful and you cannot let it pass without documenting it. Let your creativity flow by not thinking of what the captured image looks like. It is part of the fun not knowing what the end product is.

  1. There is no need for you to see what you have captured on film right after your take the shot.

Analog format cameras do not have preview screens, so you will only see the image that you have captured right after your film is processed. There is actually no need for you to see ahead of time what the end product is. You just have to take photos as long as you still have available film.

  1. Don’t restrict yourself with the rules.

The art of photography lays in your interest to document events and experiences that comes your way. You do not have to restrict yourself with the rules. Just be yourself, take photos of anything the captures your attention and those that make you happy.

So get your analog camera and start clicking! Don’t forget to have fun!

History of Photography (Part 3): Modern Development & Digital Photography Era

Welcome to the last part of the three-part discussion on the History of Photography, we have already learned about the definition of photography and the invention of the camera in part 1 (http://www.scancorner.co.uk/blog/history-of-photography-part-i-definition-of-photography-and-the-invention-of-the-camera/), and the types of camera, films and prints in part 2 (http://www.scancorner.co.uk/blog/history-of-photography-part-2-types-of-cameras-films-and-prints/). This third part we will be learning about the modern developments and the digital photography era.

The Development of Modern Photography

In 1829, Louis Daguerre, the inventor of the first practical process of photography, formed a partnership with Joseph Nicephore Niepce. Together they improved the process that Niepce has developed.  In 1839, Daguerre developed a more convenient and effective method of photography which he called as “The Daguerreotype”.

The Digital Era

Digital Camera’s Invention History:

  • In October 17,1969, George Smith and William Boyle invented the charge-coupled device (CCD) at Bell Labs.
  • In 1970, the inventors build a CCD into the first solid-state video camera.
  • In 1973, Fairchild Semiconductor released the first large image-forming CCD chip.
  • In 1975, the CCD camera received image quality good enough to broadcast television. On the same year, Bryce Bayer of Kodak developed the Bayer filter mosaic pattern for CCD color image sensors.
  • In 1981, Sony Corporation released the first prototype digital camera, called the Mavica. It used two CCD chips in recording images as magnetic impulses onto a floppy disk.
  • In 1986, Kodak scientists invented the world’s first megapixel sensor.
  • In 1987, Kodak released seven products for recording, storing, manipulating, transmitting and printing electronic still video images.
  • In early 1988, Fuji introduced the first generation digital camera, called the DS-1P which utilized CMOS sensors.
  • In 1991, the first digital camera system was developed. It was aimed at photojournalists.

 How Digital Cameras’ Work:

Digital cameras use a semiconductor device that records light electronically and saves it in bits and bytes using the pixel grid. A computer will then recognize these bytes and depict whatever has been recorded.

A digital camera can only “see” the intensity of the light and it cannot “see” color. So, in order for it to record color, most digital camera sensors use filters in order to look at the light in three primary colors, namely, red, green and blue. After the filtered channels are filtered, the three colors are then combined in order to create a full spectrum.

For most advanced type cameras, they use three different sensors in recording each color. For this to work, a beam splitter is being used. It is intended to split the beam of light into the three different sensors at the same time.

The cheapest known method in recording colors in digital cameras is the use of a permanent color filter array over the photo.

Meanwhile, the most widely used filter is called the “Bayer Filter Pattern”. It alternates a row of red and green pixels with a row of green and blue pixels in order to create the full color spectrum that is needed in the image.

Invention of the Autofocus System:

The creation of the Autofocus System in digital cameras is one of the fascinating ideas that the digital photography era brought upon.

There are two types of Autofocus Systems, the “active” autofocus, which is cheap, and the “passive” autofocus, which is more expensive.

The active autofocus system requires the camera to send infrared signals and receive them again as they bounce off the subject. It will then recognize the signal that it received and then the lens will be adjusted according to the signal.

The passive autofocus, which is commonly used in today’s digital SLRs, is a system the analyses the image through the processing of the pixel strip as well as deciding on how the lens should be adjusted.

 Known personalities during the modern and digital eras of photography:

1.      Carol Guzy is a three-time Pulitzer Prize winner. She was the first female who ever win the Newspaper Photographer of the Year Award in 1990. She is widely known for her strong and extremely powerful photography work in the Washington Post.

2.      Juergen Teller is a German fashion photographer. He is considered as one of the brightest post-modern fashion photographers today. Most of his works are very European and modern.

3.      Kevin Carter was a celebrated South African war photographer. He became popular after his took his most famous picture of a famine victim in Sudan.

4.      Garry Winogrand is one of the first street photographers. He created a certain style of stereo photography where a situation being depicted in a moment and it is full of story.

5.      Richard Avedon is one of the first true fashion photographers. He has worked for brands all over the world and has created the identity for fashion photography as a form of art.

6.      Annie Liebovitz is responsible in defining the look of Rolling Stone and other pop culture-related magazines. She was also the creator of the American culture throughout the 70s. One of her most famous photo shows was of John Lennon and Yoko Ono.

Congratulations! You have already learned all of the important facts regarding the history of photography. Now you can confidently continue to develop you photographic skills knowing that you are already equipped with the knowledge that you need regarding this popular hobby.

History of Photography Part 2: Types of Cameras, Films and Prints

This is the second part of the three-part discussion on the history of photography. In the first part, we learned about the definition of photography and the invention of the camera. To continue with the discussion, this second part intends to inform you of the types of cameras, films and prints.

If ever you haven’t read the first part yet, you may want to check this out, http://www.scancorner.co.uk/blog/history-of-photography-part-i-definition-of-photography-and-the-invention-of-the-camera/

So, what are the types of cameras that were invented ever since the art of photography started? Here is the list:

a.     Pinhole Camera is also known as Camera Obscura. It was developed by Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytam) {this was thoroughly discussed in part 1}.

b.     Daguerreoty Camera is a type of camera that utilizes a sliding-box design.

c.     Box camera was developed by George Eastman. He was dry plate manufacturer from Rochester, New York. The first simple camera was made in 1888. It was a wooden, light-tight box with a simple lens and shutter that was factory-filled with film.

d.     The first 35mm camera was called ‘Ur-Leica’. It was invented by Oskar Barnack in 1905. He was a development manager at Leica.

e.     In 1984, Canon demonstrated the first digital electronic still camera.

f.        In 1986, Fuji introduced the first disposable camera.

Invention of Photographic Films

The first flexible roll film dates back to 1889 and they were made of cellulose nitrate, which is chemically similar to guncotton. It is highly flammable and special storage was required.

Later came, the Triacetate film. It was more stable, flexible and fireproof. Most films produced up to the 1970s were based on this technology.

Today, technology has produced film with T-grain emulsions. These films use light-sensitive silver halides or grains that are T-shaped, which renders a much finer grain pattern. Films like this offer greater detail and higher resolution, thus producing sharper images.

Types of films or negatives:

  • Calotype (Greek for beautiful picture) – in 1841, Henry Fox Talbot, an English Botanist and Mathematician invented the first negative from which multiple positive prints.
  • Tintypes – was patented by Hamilton Smith in 1856. It is another medium that heralded the birth of photography.
  • Wet Plate Negatives – was invented by Frederick Scoff Archer, an English sculptor in 1851. Using a viscous solution of collodion, he coated glass with light-sensitive silver salts. Because it was glass and not paper, this wet plate created a more stable and detailed negative.
  • Dry Plate Negatives and Hand-held Cameras – In 1879, dry plate was invented. It is a glass negative plate with a dried gelatine emulsion. Dry plates could be stored for a period of time.
  • Flexible Roll Film – was invented by George Eastman in 1889. It has a base that was flexible, unbreakable, and could be rolled. Emulsions coated on a cellulose nitrate film base, such as Eastman’s, made the mass-produced box camera a reality.

Photographic Prints

Monochrome Process

  • Around the year 1800, Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance. He used a paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate.
  • The oldest surviving permanent photograph of the image formed in a camera was created in 1826 or 1827 by the French inventor Joseph Nicephore Niepce. The photograph was produced on a polished pewter plate.
  • In partnership, Niepce (in Chalon-sur-Saone) and Louis Daguerre (in Paris) refined the bitumen process, substituting a more sensitive resin and a very different post-exposure treatment that yielded higher-quality and more easily viewed images. Exposure times in the camera, although somewhat reduced, were still measured in hours.
  • In 1833, Daguerre experimented with photographing camera images directly onto a silver-surfaced plate that had been fumed with iodine vapour, which reacted with the silver to form a coating of silver iodide.
  • On January 7, 1839, Daguerre announced this first complete practical photographic process to the FrenchAcademy of Sciences. Complete instructions were published on August 19, 1839.
  • William Henry Fox Talbot, in early 1839 he acquired a key improvement, an effective fixer, from John Herschel, the astronomer, who had previously shown that hyposulfite of soda (commonly called ‘Hypo” and now known formally as sodium thiosulfate) would dissolve silver salts.
  • In 1840, Talbot invented the calotype process, which used the principle of chemical development of a faint or invisible “latent” image to reduce the exposure time to a few minutes.
  • George Eastman later refined Talbot’s process, which is the basic technology used by chemical film camera today.
  • Hippolyte Bayard had also developed a method of photography but delayed announcing it, and so was not recognized as its inventor.
  • In 1839, John Herschel made the first glass negative, but his process was difficult to reproduce.
  • In 1841, Slovene Janez Puhar invented a process for making photographs on glass.  It was recognized on June 17, 1852 in Paris by the Academie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturiere et Commerciale.
  • In 1847, the chemist Niepce St. Victor, published his invention of a process for making glass plates with an albumen emulsion.
  • In the mid-1840, the Langenheim brothers of Philadelphia and John Whipple and William Breed Jones of Boston also invented workable negative-on-glass processes.
  • In 1851, Frederick Scott Archer invented the collodion process. Photographer and children’s author Lewis Carroll used this process.
  • Herbert Bowyer Berkeley experimented with his own version of collodian emulsions.
  • In 1881, Berkeley published his discovery. Berkeley’s formula contained pyrogallol, sulfite and citric acid. Ammonia was added just before use to make the formula alkaline. The new formula was sold by the Platinotype Company in London as Sulpho-Pyrogallol Developer.

Color Process

  • As early as 1848, a practical means of color photography has been sought, but exposures that lasted for hours or days were required and the colors were so light-sensitive they would only bear very brief inspection in dim light.
  • In 1861, Thomas Sutton took the first durable color photograph was a set of three black-and-white photographs taken through red, green and blue color filters and shown superimposed by using three projectors with similar filters. He used the photo in a lecture by the Scottish Physicist James Clerk Maxwell, who had proposed the method in 1855.
  • In the early 20th century, Sergei Prokudin-Gorskii used Maxwell’s method in his work.
  • It was made practical by Hermann Wilhelm Vogel’s 1873 discovery of a way to make emulsions sensitive to the rest of the spectrum, gradually introduced into commercial use beginning in the mid-1880s.
  • Two French inventors, Louis Ducos du Hauron and Charles Cros, working unknown to each other during the 1860s, famously unveiled their nearly identical ideas on the same day in 1869. Included were methods for viewing a set of three color filtered black-and-white photographs in color without having to project them, and for using them to make full-color prints on paper.
  • The first widely used method of color photography was the Autochrome plate, commercially introduced in 1907. It was  based on one of Louis Ducos du Hauron’s ideas.
  • A new era in color photography began with the introduction of Kodachrome film, available for 16mm home movies in 1935 and 35mm slides in 1936. It captured the red, green and blue color components in three layers of emulsion.
  • Maxwell’s method of taking three separate filtered black-and-white photographs continued to serve special purposes into the 1950s and beyond, and Polachrome, an “instant” slide film that used the Autochrome’s additive principle, was available until 2003.

Watch out for the third part of this discussion to learn more about the modern development of photography.

History Of Photography (Part I): Definition of Photography and the Invention of the Camera

Today, photography has become the largest growing hobby in the world. However, not all photography enthusiasts know the history of this art.

Are you wondering where and when the art called “photography” started? Do you want to discover how your current hobby developed?

If your answers to these questions is yes, then let this article provide you with most important details regarding the history of photography and the invention of the camera.

Since the history of photography is quite long, this discussion has been divided into three sections. This article is just the first part of the three-part discussion on the history of photography.

So, what is photography?

Photography is a word derived from the Greek words φς (phos) or “photos” meaning “light” and γραφή (graphê) or “graphien” meaning “to draw”, thus the word photography means “drawing with light”. This word was first used by Sir John F.W. Herschel, a scientist, in 1839.

The history of photography commenced with the invention and development of the camera and the creation of permanent images starting with Thomas Wedgwood in 1790 and it was culminated by the work of Joseph Nicephore Niepce, a French inventor, in 1826.

Invention of the Camera:

Even before the invention of a camera, people in the early days already knew the principles of photography. They were able to process images on the wall or on a piece of paper; however, they were not able to print these images. The instrument that they used to process pictures was called Camera Obscura. It was invented by Alhazen (Ibn Al-Haytham), a great authority on optics in the Middle Ages who lived around 1000 AD. Camera Obscura was the first pinhole camera ever invented.

Camera Obscura is essentially a dark, closed space in the shape of a box with a hole on one of its side. The hole has to be small enough in proportion to the box in order for it to work.

The first photograph

On a summer day in 1827, the first photograph was taken by Joseph Niepce, a French inventor. The photo depicted a view from the window at Le Gras. Joseph Niepce called his prints as heliographs or sun prints, which is the prototype of the modern photograph.

Further developments

  • In 1888, Eastman’s Kodak camera went to the market and this led to mass use of cameras. Their slogan was, “You press the button, we do the rest.”
  • In 1901 the Kodak Brownie was introduced, which became the first commercial camera in the market available for the middle class society. It only took black and white shots, but it was still very popular because of its efficiency.
  • In the middle of the 20th century, color photography became commercially valuable. Several color photography methods were patented from 1862 onwards by two French inventors, namely, Louis Ducos de Hauron and Charlec Cros Practical.
  • In 1907, the first practical color plate reached the market. The method it used was based on a screen of filters. The screen let filtered red, green and / or blue light through and it was then developed to a negative and later on reversed to a positive.
  • In 1861, the first color photo, an image of a tartan ribbon, was taken by the famous Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell.
  • In 1839, Louis Daguerra took the very first picture which has a human in it. It was called the Boulevard du Temple.

Popular Names in the early days of photography:

  1. Alfred Stieglitz – is an American photographer and a promoter for modern art. It is believed by many that he made photography as the art that it is today.
  2. Felix Nadar – is a pseudonym of Gaspard-Felix Tournachon, a French caricaturist and journalist. When photography emerged he became a photographer. He is most famous for pioneering the use of artificial lightning in photography.
  3. Henri Cartier-Bresson – is a French photographer who is believed to be the father of photojournalism. He is most famous for creating the “street photography” style of photojournalism.

Stay tuned for the second and third parts of this interesting discussion regarding the history of photography.

Analog Photography in Digital Times

Are you wondering why there a lot of photography professionals who are using the analog camera and analog format again? If you are, here are some of the reasons why they are opting to use the analog camera:

  1. The image’s look is different when you use an analog camera because a film has an incredible color palette. The film also offers a wide dynamic range of detail in both shadows and highlights. There are many digital photographers who have been trying to imitate the look that a film could give, but they just can’t.
  2. Using an analog format camera will enhance your skills as a photographer. Why? Because operating an analog camera requires precision, training and lots of practice. It is quite hard to figure out how an analog camera functions as well as how to replace its film, so for sure your skills will be enhanced when you decide to use the analog camera.
  3. In using this format you will be challenged in how you will direct your model so that he or she will not close his or her eyes when you release the shutter.
  4. You will save more time when you use film. This is because your shoots are limited to the number of pictures that your film can accommodate. So if your film is just equivalent to 40 pictures that you will have to shoot only 40 poses or pictures. Another time saver is that the developing and scanning processes can be outsourced, which gives you more time to do the things you love while you wait.
  5. Analog format cameras are now cheaper than the digital ones because they are out of production. You can surely buy one in a second-hand store at a reasonable price. Also you will not have the urge to upgrade your equipment because it doesn’t have one so will just have to settle for the one that you already have.
  6. The quality of BOKEH in an analog camera is better compared to the BOKEH in a digital camera. BOKEH, the Japanese for ‘blur’, is the manner at which “the lens renders out-of-focus points of light”. This technique will add more artistry on the image. It will also enhance the focus of your image, in such a way that your viewer will focus their look at the image that is focused because the other parts are blurred.

So, are you ready to take the challenge and start using the analog format camera again?